هدف از این مقاله بررسی نظام تقابل واجی زبان فارسی امروز در چارچوب مبانی نقشگرایی است. سوال اصلی تحقیق در این مقاله ناظر به میزان بهرهبرداری واجشناسی زبان فارسی از تقابل هر دو واج در واژهسازی است. دادههای تحقیق شامل 41718 جفت کمینه است که از یک واژگان زایا به حجم 52858 مدخل با استفاده از یک برنامۀ رایانهای استخراج شدهاند. سپس میزان تقابل واجی برای همخوانها و واکههای فارسی بصورت مجزا محاسبه شد. تجزیه و تحلیل یافتههای آماری نشان داد که میزان تقابل واجی واکهها در جفتهای کمینۀ فارسی برحسب مشخصههای ارتفاع زبان و کشش برای طبقات غیرشبیه بیشتر از همین میزان برای طبقۀ شبیه است، اما برحسب محل تولید برای طبقات شبیه بیشتر از همین میزان برای طبقۀ غیرشبیه است.. علاوهبرآن، میزان تقابل واجی همخوانها برحسب رسایی، نحوه و محل تولید برای طبقات شبیه و غیرشبیه متفاوت عمل میکند، بطوریکه اعضای تقابل مستقل از تعداد هجا گرایش به غیررسا و تیغهای بودن دارند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Degree of the Phonological Contrast in the Today Persian Language
Abstract Today Persian phonological contrast system is addressed under the framework of functionalism in this article. The Degree of phonological Contrast (DC), as a quantitative index, is calculated for the consonants in terms of sonority, manner, and place of articulation, and for the vowels in terms of tongue height, place and length. Findings show that DC can be explained for the consonants and vowels in terms of similar and,dissimilar phonological classes.
Keywords: minimal pairs, degree of contrast, functional load, sonority, phonological class
Introduction The main question in this article concerns the extent to which Persian phonology uses the contrast of a pair of phonemes in the word-formation. The answer to this question is reported for Persian consonants and vowels. The research hypothesis implies that the less similar the members of the opposition are in terms of phonological features, the greater the prevalence of minimal pairs. Conversely, the greater similar the members of the opposition are in terms of phonological features, the less the prevalence of minimal pairs. For this purpose, the phonological contrast and functional load of the functionalism is quantified by the formula of the DC. Then mean of DC is calculated for consonants in terms of initial, middle and final positions within words, and for vowels in terms of the number of syllables of the words by using non-linear mathematical functions. Findings show that the dissimilarity of the vowels in length and also the similarity of the consonants in non-sonority and coronality are among the pervasive factors in Persian word formation.
Materials and methods Research data include 41718 minimal pairs that have been extracted from the generative lexicon (Eslami et al. 1383) with a volume of 52858 entries by using a computer program. In this program, the phonological form of each entry is compared with the phonological forms of the same length and of a unit of length more or less, and if there is only one difference, the two words are considered as a minimal pair. Minimal pairs that differed in consonant were classified according to the position of the beginning, middle, and end of the word, and those that differed in vowel were classified according to the number of syllables. To study the relationship between the DC of consonants and the position of consonants at the beginning, middle and end of words on the one hand, as well as the relationship between the DC of vowels and the number of syllables on the other hand, diagrams of exponential and logistic functions were used. To test the research hypothesis, a comparison of the values of the DCs with each other and their descending order have been used.
Discussion of results and conclusions
Examination of the minimal pairs in Persian lexicon shows that the more we go from the beginning to the end of the word, the lower the DC of Persian consonants. Also, as the number of syllables increases, the DC of vowels decreases and the inflection point of variations of the DC mean rest on three-syllable words. In addition, as the number of syllables increases, the DC of the consonants of Persian words decreases, although there is no inflection point of variations of the DC mean on three-syllable words. Overall, it follows that the DC for dissimilar classes is greater than that for similar classes. Specifically, the DC of vowels in terms of tongue height and length for dissimilar classes is more than the same for similar classes, but the opposite true for place of articulation. However, the DC of the consonants varies according to the sonority, manner and place of articulation for similar and dissimilar classes, so that the members of minimal pairs tend to be non-sonorant and coronal.